Where Geometry Meets Organic 21st Century Loudspeaker Cabinet Product Design by modifying Modernism with
Pre-Moderism's Styling Details
using Self-Similar Designs or Fractals
Fractilizing or using a Self-Similar design can make excellent sense. From
the perspective of loudspeaker cabinets, the curved shapes
lend themselves to a striking design having low diffraction. Fractials
can be applied to either the cabinet shape or to finish details on
the cabinet surface. US Enclosure
can manufacture these loudspeaker cabinets with the same or higher
control of wall vibration than found in MDF, Plywood or Metals.
For general products, fractal surfaces
create a great gripping surface. When considering structural design,
the postmodern, neo-furturist and deconstructionist design methods can
use fractionalization as a tool which allows a meeting of the concepts
modernism's logical basis with detailed beauty. From
loudspeaker cabinet to skyscrapers, products can be fractialized or
self-similarized to the limits of the wall material's resolution.
US Enclosure concept for a Fractal-based low diffracting loudspeaker cabinet
manufacturable in our plant from 10 units to 1,000,000 units per year.
After this introduction
concludes, the design style comments begin with Rome 300AD and address
construction techniques, design styles,
and Rome's material technology. Then this page travels forward through
history of design having very detailed surface features until the advent of Modernism. Certain
design schools are not addressed on this page
as they did not utilize appreciable exterior design shapes which could
translate for moving today's product design into interesting
offramps. Other US Enclosure design pages focus on Modernism, especially related
to Loudspeaker Cabinet design; US Enclosure Design endorses no specific
Nonetheless, a detailed exterior cabinet style has
positive attributes which can be found when using fractals
in product or even architecture design work. Except during design "revivals" the historical curve has been to less expressively detailed designs. Pre-Modernism design's used a style readily adaptable to fractals which now can be inexpensively manufactured for
product construction having a new detailed and modern 21st Century feel.
This page examines some of the highest detailed design styles during the period from the
fall of Rome until the birth of Modernist design and shows where fractals can be used in place of the
flourishes. The goal is to manufacture for OEM's completely fresh-looking
designs for Loudspeaker cabinets, as well as for other products' designs.
Specific Fractals have non diffracting effects and their curved shape strengthens the cabinet
Fractal Definition refresher:
A fractal, mathematically first described discovered in 1978, is a natural phenomenon or a
mathematical set that exhibits a repeating pattern that displays at
every scale. It is also known as expanding symmetry or evolving symmetry. If the replication is exactly the same at every scale, it is called a Self-Similar Pattern, of which an example is the Menger Sponge.
Fractals can also be nearly the same at different levels. This latter
pattern is illustrated in the magnifications of the Mandelbrot set.
Fractals also include the idea of a detailed pattern that repeats
itself. Fractals are different from other geometric figures
because of the way in which they scale. From a far distance, you see a
shape that happens to be a fractal. When any portion of the shape
you see at a distance is examined under a microscope, the shape you saw
at a distance is in the microscopes eyepiece.
Modern Examples using Very Old Design Schools
the early 1980s, Philip
designed a Post-Modernist
addition to the Cleveland Play House which reflects Byzantine influences, and could be termed Neo-Byzantine.
The Dancing House in Prague, by Vlado Milunic and Frank Gehry, who described the structure as "New Baroque".
Gare do Oriente the Lisbon Oriente
Station is one of the main Portuguese intermodal transport hubs, and is
situated in Lisbon. The concept was originally designed by Spanish
architect Santiago Calatrava in 1995.
With some influence from Gothic architecture, the station bears
considerable resemblance to Santiago Calatrava's earlier Allen Lambert
Galleria within Toronto's Brookfield Place.
Calatrava's objective was to realize a new space with ample room and
functionality providing multiple connections between various zones in
the metropolitan area of Lisbon.
Brookfield Place (Toronto 1992) Gothic Modernist
1981 Postmodern Gothic (Cleveland)
Examples of Byzantine Details that lend themselves to Modern Design Fractal Interpretation
Byzantine Design is the design used by the Byzantine
also known as the Eastern Roman Empire. This terminology
is used by modern historians to designate the medieval Roman Empire as
it evolved as a distinct artistic and cultural entity centered on the
new capital of Constantinople after 330 AD rather than the city of Rome
and environs. The empire endured for more than a millennium,
dramatically influencing Medieval architecture throughout Europe and the
Near East, and becoming the primary progenitor of the Renaissance and
Ottoman architectural traditions that followed its collapse.
Early Byzantine architecture was built as
a way of remembering Roman architecture. Stylistic drift, technological
advancement, and political and territorial changes meant that a
distinct style gradually resulted. Buildings slowly increased in
geometric complexity, brick and plaster were used in addition to
stone. Classical Orders were used more freely ( The Classical Orders
are the ancient styles of classical architecture, each distinguished by
its proportions and characteristic profiles and details, and most
readily recognizable by the type of column employed. Three ancient
orders of architecture—the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian—originated in
Greece. To these the Romans added the Tuscan, which they made simpler
than Doric, and the Composite, which was more ornamental than the
Corinthian ), mosaics replaced carved decoration, complex domes rested
upon massive piers, and windows filtered light through thin sheets of
to softly illuminate interiors. Most of the surviving structures are
sacred in nature, with secular buildings mostly known only through
Rome's Santa Costanza Church 360 AD
Ravenna's Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo 550 AD
Church of Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom) in Constantinople (c.537), designed by the scientist and mathematician Anthemios of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus
Constantinople was taken by the Ottomans on 29 May
1453. In accordance with the custom at the time Sultan Mehmet II
allowed his troops three days of unbridled pillage once the city fell, after
which he would claim its contents for himself.Hagia Sophia was not exempted from the pillage, becoming its focal point
as the invaders believed it to contain the greatest treasures of the city. Shortly after the city's defenses collapsed,
pillagers made their way to the Hagia Sophia and battered down its doors.Throughout
the siege worshipers participated in the Holy Liturgy and Prayer of the Hours
at the Hagia Sophia, and the church formed a refuge for many of those who were
unable to contribute to the city's defense, such as women, children and elderly.Trapped in the church, congregants and
refugees became spoils to be divided amongst the Ottoman invaders. The building
was desecrated and looted, and occupants enslaved, violated or slaughtered; while elderly and infirm were killed, women
and girls were raped and the remainder chained and sold into slavery.Priests continued to perform Christian rites
until stopped by the invaders.When
the Sultan and his cohort entered the church, he insisted it should be at once
transformed into a mosque. One of the Ulama then climbed
the pulpit and recited the Shahada.
Prime examples of early Byzantine architecture date from Justinian I's
reign and one of the great breakthroughs in the history of Western
occurred when Justinian's architects invented a complex system providing
for a smooth transition from a square plan of the church to a circular
dome celing and roof (or domes) by means of pendentives... a
constructive device permitting the placing of a circular dome over a
square room or an elliptical dome over a rectangular room.
The pendentives, which are triangular segments of a sphere,
taper to points at the bottom and spread at the top to establish the
continuous circular or elliptical base needed for the dome. The
exterior walls thus receive the weight of the dome, concentrating it at
the four corners where it can be received by the piers beneath.
Later churches, however, had greater care
lavished on their exteriors: clerestoreyed drums of domes are taller,
walls are often given the cloisonné treatment, while motifs based on the
Kufic alphabet are introduced in bands on the wall-surface.
Ultimately, Byzantine design in the West gave a way to Carolingian, Romanesque, and Gothic architecture.
Neo-Byzantine architecture had a small following in the wake of the 19th-century Gothic revival,
resulting in such jewels as Westminster Cathedral in London, and in
Bristol from about 1850 to 1880 a related style known as Bristol
Byzantine was popular for industrial buildings which combined elements
of the Byzantine style with Moorish architecture. Byzantine Revival was developed on a
wide-scale basis in Russia during the reign of Alexander II by
Grigory Gagarin and his followers who designed St Volodymyr's Cathedral in Kiev, St Nicholas Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Sofia, Saint Mark's church in Belgrade and the New Athos Monastery in New Athos near Sukhumi. The largest Neo-Byzantine project of the 20th century was the Temple of Saint Sava in Belgrade.
Examples of Carolingian Details that lend themselves to Modern Design Fractal Interpretation
Carolingian architecture is the style of
north European Pre-Romanesque architecture belonging to the period of
the Carolingian Renaissance of the late 8th and 9th centuries, when the Carolingian family dominated west European politics. From 750 - 900 it was a conscious attempt to emulate Roman architecture
and to that end it borrowed heavily from Early Christian and Byzantine
architecture, though there are nonetheless innovations of its own,
resulting in a unique character.
The gatehouse of the monastery at Lorsch, built around 800, exemplifies classical
inspiration for Carolingian architecture, built as a triple-arched hall
dominating the gateway, with the arched facade interspersed with
attached classical columns and pilasters above.
The Palatine Chapel in Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) constructed between 792–805 was inspired by the octagonal Justinian
church of San Vitale in Ravenna, built in the 6th century, but at
Aachen there is a tall monumental western entrance complex, as a whole
called a westwork—a Carolingian innovation.
Carolingian churches generally incorporated
"westworks", which is arguably the precedent for the western facades of
later medieval cathedrals. An original westwork survives today at the Abbey of Corvey, built in 885.
Examples of Rayonnant Details that lend themselves to Modern Design Fractal Interpretation
11th Century, repeated formalized designs ( fractal-like ) took hold in
the West and created highly detailed project designs using
repeated and mirror image styling's.
Rayonnant (French word meaning "radiating") specifically describes the radiating spokes of the rose windows in French and other Gothic architecture between c. 1240 and 1350, characterized by a shift in focus away from the High Gothic mode of utilizing great scale and spatial rationalism towards a greater concern for two dimensional surfaces and the
repetition of decorative motifs at different scales. After the
century, Rayonnant gradually evolved into the Flamboyant style, though
as usual with such arbitrary stylistic labels, the transition point is
not clearly defined.
transition (in France) from Rayonnant to Flamboyant Gothic was gradual
and evolutionary in form, marked primarily by a shift towards new
tracery patterns based on S-shaped curves (these curves resemble
flickering flames, from which the new style got its name). However,
amidst the chaos of the Hundred Years War
and the various other misfortunes experienced by Europe during the 14th
century, relatively little large scale construction occurred and
certain elements of the Rayonnant style remained in vogue well into the
Cologne Cathedral (1248–1322)
various decorative elements employed in the Rayonnant style (bar
tracery, blind and open tracery, gables and pinnacles) could also be
applied on a much smaller scale, both for the micro-architectural
fixtures and fittings within a church (tombs, shrines, pulpits,
sacrament houses, etc.) and also for small portable objects like
reliquaries, liturgical equipment, ivory diptychs, etc. This combination
of flexibility and portability may have been a key factor in the
dissemination of Rayonnant and its various offshoots across Europe in
the late 13th and early 14th centuries.
Rayonnant takes the
appearance of structural lightness to the extreme.
More of the wall surface than ever before was pierced by windows and
buildings were often given lace-like tracery screens on the
exterior to hide the bulk of load bearing wall elements and buttresses.
Blind tracery use (decorating an otherwise blank
wall) and of open tracery, typically all using the same decorative
motifs as the adjoining areas. English Decorated Gothic has been
characterized by some design historians as "French design with an
Examples of Flamboyant Details that lend themselves to Modern Design Fractal Interpretation
Flamboyant style(from French flamboyant, "flaming") is the name given to a florid style of late Gothic architecture beginning about 1350 in France and Spain evolved out of the Rayonnant style’s increasing emphasis on decoration. Its most conspicuous feature is the dominance in stone window tracery
of a flamelike S-shaped curve and the
dramatic lengthening of gables and the tops of arches. . Structural logic was
obscured by covering buildings with elaborate tracery. Attractive French
examples include Notre-Dame d’Épine near Châlons-sur-Marne,
Saint-Maclou in Rouen (c. 1500–14), and the northern spire of Chartres Cathedral.
Spanish Flamboyant architects developed their own intricate forms of
vaulting with curvilinear patterns; the Capilla del Condestable in
Burgos Cathedral (1482–94) and Segovia Cathedral (begun 1525) provide
examples. Flamboyant Gothic, which became increasingly ornate, gave way
in France to Renaissance forms in the 16th century.
The term is sometimes used of the early period of English Gothic architecture called the Decorated Style. A key feature is
the ogee arch, originating in Beverley Minster, England around 1320.
the past the Flamboyant style, along with its antecedent Rayonnant, has
frequently been disparaged by critics. More recently some have sought
to rehabilitate it. William W Clark commented:
Flamboyant is the most neglected period of Gothic design because
of the prejudices of past generations; but the neglect of these highly
and inventive design fantasies is unwarranted. The time
has come to discard old conceptions and look anew at Late Gothic
Examples of Baroque Details that lend themselves to Modern Design Fractal Interpretation
Baroque Design is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman
vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical
and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic
Church and the absolutist state. It was characterized by new
explorations of form, light and shadow, and dramatic intensity.
the Renaissance drew on the wealth and power of the Italian courts and
was a blend of secular and religious forces, the Baroque was, initially
at least, directly linked to the Counter-Reformation, a movement within
the Catholic Church to reform itself in response to the Protestant Reformation.
Baroque architecture and its embellishments were on the one hand more
accessible to the emotions and on the other hand, a visible statement of
the wealth and power of the Church. The new style manifested itself in
particular in the context of the new religious orders, like the Theatines and the Jesuits who aimed to improve popular piety.
the middle of the 17th century, the Baroque style had found its secular
expression in the form of grand palaces, first in France and then
throughout Europe. During the 17th century, Baroque design spread
through Europe and Latin America, where it was particularly promoted by
Features of Baroque Design
Michelangelo's late Roman buildings, particularly St. Peter's Basilica,
may be considered precursors to Baroque design. His pupil Giacomo della
Porta continued this work in Rome, particularly in the facade of the
Jesuit church Il Gesù, which leads directly to the most important church facade of the early Baroque, Santa Susanna (1603), by Carlo Maderno.
Distinctive features of Baroque architecture can
include: In churches, oval interiors at times. Fragmentary or
deliberately incomplete architectural elements. Dramatic use of light;
either strong light-and-shade contrasts (chiaroscuro effects) as
at the church of Weltenburg Abbey, or uniform lighting by means of
several windows (e.g. church of Weingarten Abbey). Opulent use of color
and ornaments. An external façade often characterized by a dramatic
central projection. Illusory effects like trompe l'oeil
(an art technique involving extremely realistic imagery in order to
create the optical illusion that the depicted objects appear in three
dimensions.) and the blending of painting and design. Pear-shaped domes
in the Bavarian, Czech, Polish and Ukrainian areas.
Examples of Beaux-Arts Design Details that lend themselves to Modern Design Fractal Interpretation
Beaux-ArtsArchitecture (/ˌboʊˈzɑːr/) heavily influenced the architecture of the United States in the period from 1880 to 1920.
The style expresses the academic neoclassical architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts
in Paris. The style of instruction that produced Beaux-Arts
architecture continued without major interruption until 1968. On the eve of World War I ( 1910) the Beaux-Arts
style competitors roots were occurring and by 1915 - 1925 major
competitors among the architects of Modernism and the nascent International Style had designs under construction .
The Beaux-Arts training emphasized the mainstream examples of Imperial Roman architecture
between Augustus and the Severan emperors, Italian Renaissance, and
French and Italian Baroque models especially, but the training could
then be applied to a broader range of models: Quattrocento Florentine
palace fronts or French late Gothic.
American architects of the Beaux-Arts generation often returned to
Greek models, which had a strong local history in the American Greek Revival
of the early 19th century. For the first time, repertories of
photographs supplemented meticulous scale drawings and on-site
renderings of details.
Some aspects of Beaux-Arts approach could degenerate into mannerisms. Beaux-Arts training made great use of agrafes,
clasps that links one architectural detail to another; to
interpenetration of forms which is a habit of the Baroque style; and, of
symbolism taken to literal-minded extremes. Beaux-Arts sculptural
decoration is along conservative
modern lines, employing French and Italian Baroque and Rococo formulas
combined with an impressionistic finish and realism.
Beaux-Arts style: Principal characteristics of Slightly overscaled details, bold sculptural supporting consoles (a structural piece jutting from a wall to carry a superincumbent weight, a type of bracket., rich deep cornices, and other sculptural enrichment's. Examples include: a
Textured Base with smooth outside walls above the base, Arched and
Gabled openings, classical details with an eclectic mixing of various
styles. Symmetry. Sculpture (
panels, figural sculptures, sculptural groups), murals, mosaics, and
other artwork, all coordinated in theme to assert the identity of the
design. Classical design details: Spindle Shapes, Pilasters (the appearance of a supporting column and to articulate an extent of wall, with only an ornamental function.) , Festoons- in architecture typically a carved ornament depicting conventional arrangement of garland bound together and suspended by ribbons. Cartouchs-- an oval or oblong design with a slightly convex surface, typically edged with ornamental scroll work. Acroteria--
a design ornament placed on a flat base called the plinth, and mounted
at the apex of the Arched and or Gabled openings-in the classical
style., with a prominent display of richly detailed clasps (agrafes), brackets and supporting consoles, and Subtle Finishes using Polychromy.
The final three images (below) follow the Beaux-Arts approach:
classical details with an eclectic mixing of various
These examples are Richardson Romanesque.
Bristol Byzantine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Byzantine Revival Design
The Byzantine Revival or Neo-Byzantine movement was an architectural revival
movement most frequently seen in religious, institutional and public
buildings. It emerged in the 1840s in Western Europe and peaked in the
last quarter of 19th century in the Russian Empire; an isolated
Neo-Byzantine school was active in Yugoslavia between World War I and
World War II.
Neo-Byzantine architecture incorporates elements of the Byzantine style associated with Eastern and Orthodox Christian architecture dating from the 5th through 11th centuries, notably that of Constantinople and the Exarchate of Ravenna.
The style is characterized by round arches, vaults and domes, brick and
stucco surfaces, symbolic ornamentation, and the use of decorative
Bristol Byzantine is a variety of Byzantine Revival architecture that was popular in the city of Bristol, England from about 1850 to 1880.
Neo-Byzantine Design in Russia
Byzantine architecture, like Russian
Revival, had the least chance to survive the Socialist anti-religious
campaign of the 1920s. Destruction peaked in 1930, targeting large
downtown cathedrals with no apparent logic: Kharkov Cathedral of Saint
Nicholas ( Santa Claus ) was demolished "to streamline tram lines". Most
of remaining churches were converted to warehouses, cinemas or
offices, and left to rot without proper maintenance. Nevertheless,
majority of Byzantine churches survived past the fall of the Soviet
Russian Neo-Byzantine Style defined:
Blending of arches and domes. The
supporting arcade blends directly into dome roof; tin roofing flows
smoothly around the arches. Arches were designed for maximum insolation via wide window openings. A few designs (Sevastopol Cathedral, 1862–1888, Livadia
church, 1872–1876) also had wooden window shutters with circular
cutouts, as used in medieval Byzantium. In the 20th century this pattern
was reproduced in stone (Kuntsevo church, 1911), actually reducing insolation.
Exposed masonry. The Neoclassical canon enforced by Alexander I required masonry surfaces to be finished in flush stucco.
Byzantine and Russian revival architects radically departed from this
rule; instead, they relied on exposing exterior brickwork. While exposed
brickwork dominated the scene, it was not universal; exterior stucco
remained in use, especially in the first decade of Alexander II's
Two-tone, striped masonry.
Russian architects borrowed the Byzantine tradition of adorning flat
wall surfaces with horizontal striped patterns. Usually, wide bands of
dark red base brickwork were interleaved with narrow stripes of yellow
of grey brick, slightly set back into the wall. Reverse (dark red
stripes over grey background) was rare, usually associated with Georgian
variety of churches built in Nicholas II period. The importance of
color pattern increased with building size: it was nearly universal in
large cathedrals but unnecessary in small parish churches.
Sretenia Gospodnya Church- built 1998 in St. Petersburg
Gare do Oriente - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia